User acceptance testing UAT is the most crucial phase in the software development lifecycle. Uat testing ensures the new system or uat defect management process meets the user requirements. It is crucial to get the application through the user acceptance tests as it is the last quality gate validates product quality, accuracy, and compliance before its deployment into production.
Objectives of UAT testing 2. What are the different types of User acceptance testing UAT? How is UAT different from other levels of testing? A successful UAT is crucial for deploying systems with no errors and business risks. However, implementing UAT in an agile environment might lead to frequent and reduced cycles of testing.
This mandates the testers to develop skills of optimized testing techniquesautomation and work in collaboration with the development and QA teams. Therefore, a user acceptance test is an important and final phase to test business processes executed in the application or software finally. Each user acceptance test differs depending on which business process is being tested. At-large, however, UAT testing will involve these activities:. In other terms, the emphasis is on the functionality and the usability of the application rather than the technical aspects.
The User Acceptance Testing is the last Quality Assurance effort before the release of the application. It is carried out in an environment that closely resembles the real world or production environment. In most organizations, user acceptance testing is carried out by business users. It represents a cross-section of users to test the new application using real-world scenarios. As this testing is a fundamental check of software qualityspecial care must be given to establishing a proper UAT testing environment and approach.
If we talk about the bigger picture of quality initiatives, user acceptance testing is an important element in any Quality Assurance program. To get the optimum results from this type of testing process, it is advisable to designate the task to an experienced QA team. In this type of software testingthe developed software is tested against some regulations and rules to check whether the software is meeting the required requirements or not.
Based on the feedback received, the development teams fix the issues to improve product usability with alpha testing; and the feedback from beta testing helps in overall product improvement. This testing practice is also known as production acceptance testing. It helps to verify whether the workflows that are used by the software system are maintained properly or not. This type of testing is performed on the developed software programs.
It helps to check whether the developed software can meet the pre-defined criteria or the specifications that are agreed within the contract.
This type of testing can be performed as user acceptance testing or functional testing. In this type of testing, system functionalities are analysed without allowing the testers to check the internal code structure.
Setting up tools — Test data and defect management tools 2. Setting up roles and responsibilities of business users in the tools 3. Developing test cases and user acceptance testing Runbook 4. Setting up Test Data in the test environment 5.
Training business users on how to execute Test Cases and log defects 6. Retesting and regression testing of defects found during UAT. While performing this testing, it is essential to perform tests by considering multiple factors to meet and understand user expectations. Also, it is important to verify whether the product has met the requirements and expectations of the target audience.
During the practice of User acceptance testing, along with the practice of verifying user requirements, it is crucial to test user acceptance with the usage of real-world connections.
Testing on real-world conditions will help to validate the product performance and enhances the test results by finding out the issues or errors. Hence, to meet the user standards, considering real-world scenarios is important. Usually, in the development cycle, User acceptance testing is considered to be conducted before the product is being launched.Each acceptance test describes a set of system inputs and expected results. User acceptance test refers to the satisfactory test of solution by users before moving the solution to LIVE Environment.
In UAT, users of the software validate the maximum possible scenarios that may come in LIVE environment, which are tested in the solution and found to be accurate. If UAT is about testing the solution, then a question comes to mind: " What do Quality Assurance departments do at their end when they say they are testing the application? The goal of software testing is " to make sure the software meets the specification " or " to make sure that the developed software is bug free.
Whereas the goal of User Acceptance Testing is " to make sure that system completely supports the day-to-day business scenarios along with other known possible scenarios that may create a hurdle in business operations, and to make sure that software will not hurt the LIVE operation when it will be running in a LIVE environment. UAT is considered a final stage of any software development initiative. Without successfully completing the UAT, the project cannot be considered as completed nor does any client accept.
While discussing the project issues with different colleagues, friends, community members and others, I have found that many Business Analysts try to implement the system directly in a LIVE environment, i. In the earlier-mentioned situation, when the user was focused on testing the system based on LIVE entries only, he definitely loses the focus on those abnormalities that arise usually in his business transactions.
Further, there might be some special cases that were handled in some other way by the users; those cases will also be missed in testing based on LIVE data.
All of these abnormalities, special cases and others issues will come someday in the LIVE environment when the user will be using the software, which will be the time the user will say, "I used to solve this case by pressing that button in legacy system" or "I did this case by doing this, this and this," and the vendor will ask for Change Request and two things will be charged money and timeand due to time the business may suffer.
And when the system is ready, users test all those scenarios in the system and after successful completion of testing, the system goes LIVE. This will minimize the chances of abnormality or exceptional cases in the LIVE environment. Thousands of reasons can be written on the importance and impact of not doing UAT; following, are some very important reasons for which UAT should be done in every project.
Increase User Satisfaction : UAT provides full-fledge access of software to user, which gives him a lot of confidence as well as satisfaction to allow him to test the software that soon he will be using in a LIVE environment. Business reputation: If due to software solution, organization is unable to provide the services to its customer or provide the services with delay or somehow impact customer by giving wrong figures or showing wrong transaction in customer's account, this may blow the business reputation and definitely results in customer dissatisfaction, and with this, the company may lose a good amount of business that was successfully in hand having the legacy system in place.
Business Analyst as a neutral, non-technical, business side representative makes a good UAT conductor.
Due to his focus of solving business problems, independent from developer and not having a technical mind, he can easily think in the shoes of the customer to identify the normal as well as complex, uncertain and abnormal scenarios along with real like data and help users in testing the same before going into the LIVE environment.
And finally, the Business Analyst has a vested interest of high-quality software along with the solution of the business problem with value addition and so is motivated to perform rigorous testing of the system.
As mentioned earlier, UAT is the last and final stage after which the system will go LIVE, and therefore, the crust of this activity is to make sure that maximum scenarios are tested in the system and if issues are found they are reported accordingly. These qualities allow the person playing that role to perform this important activity; the business analyst must think in the shoes of the user to understand his problem.
Absence of these skills may fail the overall UAT phase. People Handling: Business Analyst that holds good skills of people handling and can develop a good relationship with users in order to explain his point of view, and that skill also helps business analysts to understand the point of view of users.
In UAT, users sometimes try to resist change or try to imply his point, but having a good relationship with the business analyst, the issue of ego doesn't come between and things get concluded in a positive direction.
Domain Knowledge: As quoted in every business analysis-related article, "Domain Knowledge is mandatory for Business Analyst. Due to his limitation in business knowledge, he will not be able to identify the business scenarios, nor can he help the user in identification of the same, and also will not be able to question the wrong scenarios or wrong practices that the user requires to be added as scenario in the software.
Software Functional Knowledge: You must have heard a business analyst saying, "I need to talk to my technical team to get the idea how this screen will work? Don't know about his own solution.
Executor, Initiator: Business analysts should have the skills of execution; he should have the ability to drive the users according to the UAT Plan and in case of any issues related to user availability, system errors, other resource availability, any other showstoppers or issues of progress, he should escalate it to the right person immediately without wasting time.
Business analysts should observe the situation and inform the relevant stakeholder in case he senses some risk or issue that is arising. Positive Attitude: Business analysts should always maintain a positive attitude and consider the comments of users as areas of improvement and act accordingly rather than start being defensive or sometimes offensive about it.
User Availability: Issue 1 of any UAT, even if users are marked as fulltime user to the project, still they will not be able to give you required time, due to their involvement in day-to-day operations. As most of the time organizations find it difficult to execute the full-time strategy, because the user assigned to automation project are usually more skillful than others in their department, and assigning them to the project for fulltime impacts the day-to-day operations of the organization, and if the organization is ready to do so, it will require their users' interactions, which again impacts the user availability for UAT.
Therefore, business analysts should maintain the record of user availability and escalate if user is not available as required for UAT. Detail-Oriented Personality: There are some users who have a very detail-oriented personality or, in order words, they are perfectionists.
These users are very hard to handle due to their expectations and requirements; they always want everything completed precisely and in detail. And their focus on detail drives them to the complex scenarios that a business has never faced before and might not face in the future as well, but they insist on testing those scenarios or handling of those scenarios in the software.
That type of personality eats your UAT time like a grasshopper eats the grass.Beta testing and User acceptance testing UAT are two of the most common types of tests to validate your development before launching your SaaS product or website. User acceptance testing encompasses different types of testing, including beta testing, which can make it difficult to understand the differences between the two.
Knowing how the two fit together will help you maximize the performance of each stage of testing.
The Ultimate Guide To User Acceptance Testing (UAT) Template Design
Beta testing is a concept that most people, even non-techies, are familiar with. When a new piece of software is getting close to being released, the product managers will allow a select portion of users to use the software early, with the knowledge that there will be bugs and issues.
They then report any issues they find, ensuring that the end result is error-free and user-friendly. User acceptance testingor UAT, is similar to beta testing, but it has a different goal in mind. Specifically, UAT is used to ensure that the final product meets the requests of the client or end-user. Every piece of software is built for a reason, and UAT ensures that reason is fulfilled before a product is shipped.
The entire beta testing process should take around two to eight weeks, though it can run longer if the software is more complex.
What is User Acceptance Testing (UAT)? with Examples
Before beta testing takes place, most developers will put the software through alpha testing. Alpha testing has the same goals as beta testing, but instead of releasing the software to potential end-users, the software is only used by the team working on the software. This is to check for glaring errors and issues, while beta testing is more about fine-tuning. UAT is an ongoing process that should take place throughout the entire software development journey. If UAT is only conducted at the beginning of the development process, then there is too much space afterward where the project can drift from the original vision.
To avoid running into these issues, developers should perform UAT alongside each milestone to prevent major disruptions. This applies more so to beta testing, as your UAT testing group will be very specific more on this in the next section.
The more beta testers you have, the more accurate and fruitful your results will be.
Beta Testing vs. User Acceptance Testing: When to use which?
On the other hand, if your sample size is too large, it may be impossible for your team to compile the results in a usable manner. For small teams, five to ten users should be enough to report major issues and detect recurring problems without overwhelming your developers with data.
An useful strategy for managing your beta testers is to segment them. You can use long-term customers for one portion of your testers and brand new customers as another portion to provide you with diverse results. You can even break up your beta testers by platform, like iOS users vs Android users vs desktop users.
A rookie mistake that can happen in beta testing is choosing testers that would never use your product in the real world. A best practice in choosing beta testers is to always be scouting them out. An excellent source of beta testers can even be your own customers! If certain customers keep reaching out to you with feedback and ideas, ask them to be a part of your beta testing group.
As we hinted at in the previous section, your audience is going to be very specific in UAT. Namely, it will be your client s. Although one of the key goals of beta and user acceptance testing is to address bugs with your software, this should not be the only area your team focuses on. Otherwise, you risk creating a faultless program that no one uses. Outside of technical issues, your testers should be identifying areas for improvement in the design and usability of your software.
Looking for feedback in these areas will help you not only polish your software but also restructure it in meaningful ways.
To get this kind of feedback for your users, you can ask questions at different points in the beta testing process, like:.If carried out as early as possible and as regularly as possible, it not only alerts the development team to aspects that don't yet meet the requirements of the users, but also gives governance a better idea of progress. If UAT is delayed, defects become expensive and troublesome to fix.
Sophia Segal gives an experienced summary view of UAT. The success of a new product or software application is at the mercy of how precisely it fulfils the requirements of its users. Even if a company has successfully gone live with an innovative product, but has failed to ensure that it meets the requirements of the end users because its suitability was never properly checked, the consequences will be likely to be failure, poor consumer experience, brand deterioration and major financial loss because of having to identify defects and fix them.
Despite all this, there is little enthusiasm in the industry for User Acceptance testing UATand project governance continues to make the repeated mistake of undervaluing the process, whether using Agile or Waterfall methodologies. Without effective UAT User Acceptance Testingthe chances of the success of a development project are severely diminished.
That it is why it is such an important part of the delivery process. UAT can be carried out using an agile approach. In Agile, it is not an independent phase, but instead an iterative collaboration between all the project stakeholders, ensuring continuous test and feedback cycles.
For User Acceptance testing, a Requirements Subject Matter Expert Requirements SMEor Business Domain expert, ensures that the requirements continues, throughout the delivery process, to be correctly understood and documented within the delivery team.
These can then be verified by means of UAT. It is a small investment to make to maximize their revenue and increase brand reputation in the market. It removes unpleasant surprises after release and deployment, and gives Governance a far better idea of development progress. It takes care to ensure that business processes that are essential for the business or which carry a risk of financial or reputational loss are rigorously checked.
User Accepted Testing UAT is a structured testing process that makes sure that all user requirements are performing as the user wants and expects. Does the vendor product screen display under ten seconds when the user selects it? Does the business flow handle exceptions and alternative flows? These are all valid UAT requirements which need to be fleshed out meticulously with their corresponding acceptance criteria. The software or product must satisfy these criteria, before the customer or user will accept it.
Requirements SME, who possess direct knowledge of end-to-end business processes, are a key part of the governance of an IT project. They can manage stakeholders to simulate accurate business scenarios, understand the key system functionalities, are able to lead training efforts and can accurately assess the severity of defects and risks on the business. They will also have a critical role to prepare UAT and to design the overall structure of the tests, by means of a series of concise unambiguous requirements, which form the base for test cases.
By shepherding real business users through the process of running these tests, UAT reveals all the shortcomings of the application under development. This is only effective if there are concise user requirements, which will evolve over time as they are reviewed and refined in software projects. Any application development has to meet its requirements. As well as ensuring that these are all identified and understood, a Requirements SME needs to specify the acceptance criteria in terms that can be understood by the entire team.
As soon as an issue or defect is identified, it is fixed or resolved before the product is deployed, thereby saving time and cost. Concentrating on other types of testing such as unit testing, integration testing or performance tests at the expense of UAT because of project time constraints.
If testing focuses on the technical functionality of the software instead of looking at the complete end-to-end testing process, defects will only be discovered after the product has shifted to production, and will be likely to cost at least ten times to fix than had it been captured earlier in the process. Domain experts and business staff who lack the know-how and cannot accurately identify scenarios relating to the operation of the whole business process which needed to be tested.
With no expert input to extensively prepare and manage a user acceptance testing process and risk assessment errors will not be captured before the system goes live, the software application will not behave as the end users anticipate and the developers will be swamped by change requests from the business at the worst possible time to find and resolve major defects.
Requirements Subject Matter Experts must understand business and application software requirements and critical business flows, and be able to competently prepare and validate data which are realistic and pertinent to the business. UAT should be an integral part of the development process so that development teams can get immediate warning of any misunderstanding of the acceptance criteria.This is great proof that beginners have a difficult time understanding the scope of work, roles and responsibilities.
They only have a vague idea about this and are often looking for ways to validate if their understanding is accurate or not. And, if you are thinking this is only an issue for newcomers, you are wrong. But lots of time, efficiency and quality are compromised in the process. To avoid all that, we have outlined the major tasks that are part of STLC and the respective responsibilities in the form of the below table:.
For all the processes mentioned in the above table, follow the below links for more information:. Each individual is responsible for their work product and its quality.
No team lead should tell us what to do, every single day. Leadership in Testing Part 1 and Part 2 here. That is a quick wrap up on team lead and team member tasks and duties in a typical QA team. As always, please share your experiences, comments and questions below. It seems there are no sections on Automation testing — designing test scripts and frameworks or selection of automation tools that has to be decided by QA lead.
Rest of the article is very informative and very helpful for budding QA lead. In past years you published different articles on different topics and all were helpful. Thanks for your help and support to all QA members. I believe the matrix needs to be created by System Engineering staff. This group should be working with design engineers prior to even the start of coding. The test manager will access this item ans assign staf to start drafting testing documents after its completion.
Dayle: Well, the process differs from team to team. This is from an internal QA team stand point…great input though. Thanks for your readership! Good article, I would like you to write one where you differentiate between QA lead and Manager roles also.How to write test case
There should be a section in above article where it should be mentioned what all should not be done by QA lead.You are familiar with the testing templates for the quality assurance team. What will you do if someone asks you to produce a user acceptance testing template design or UAT testing template design?
Will you use the same testing template or tweak it a bit to accommodate the difference of mindsets? In this article, we will explain user acceptance testing in detail.
We will also look at the reasons and understand why user acceptance testing is important. Then, we will discuss the factors that shall be considered while planning and conducting UAT. We will present user acceptance testing template and describe its elements. User Acceptance Testing, UAT, refers to the process where software product is handed over to the client users; they use the application for a specific time period and approves or rejects the software product.
The product is released for production, when it passes the user acceptance testing. According to Techopediauser acceptance testing can be defined as:. User acceptance testing UAT Testing is the last phase of the software testing process. During UAT, actual software users test the software to make sure it can handle required tasks in real-world scenarios, according to specifications.
UAT is one of the final and critical software project procedures that must occur before newly developed software is rolled out to the market. Note that the QA team of software development company takes part in UAT, only as a support if needed. The main focus of UAT is to verify that the developed product meets the requirements and expectations of users. Users should feel comfortable to use the application and perform their tasks with it.
After completion of UAT, users might report some issues, change requests or new functionalities. The product is considered approved and ready for production, when users approve it after UAT. During software development life cycle, the software product undergoes through various types of testing by the developers and testing team. All this effort is carried out to ensure that the functionality works correctly.
This team becomes so familiar with the application that they might become a victim of tunnel vision. They are fully aware of workarounds and may skip certain steps to do any process. The users are naive of how the application works. Rather, UAT is a measure of how good your application performs in normal user scenarios. There is also a chance that the software development team might have misunderstood the requirements or missed any requirement altogether.
UAT helps to identify any such flaws in the system.If you read 5 or more articles, you might just wind up confused.
However, there are at least three different ideas out there about what UAT is, and one of them is the more useful concept to embrace, especially for you fine folks reading this. User Acceptance Testing is a software testing activity in which actual users test the product to confirm that it works in real-life situations to fulfill its original intent. UAT is often the last phase of testing, following developer testing and QA testing.
Your organization may use different activity names in place of these, e. The key is to realize that software developers, software testers, project managers, product owners, etc. UAT is planned testing, so it may not capture literal real-life use. Users may be instructed to perform certain tasks, but those tasks should reflect real-life scenarios in real-life user conditions as much as possible.
There was, presumably, a reason why the product or feature came to be in the first place. Usually, some combination of user needs and business goals were deemed good enough reason to greenlight a software development effort.
Software specs—requirements, designs, etc. Most software testing activities focus on whether a product or feature matches the software specs. UAT instead focuses on whether the whether the product or feature sufficiently meets the original user needs and business goals. In software testing, validation and verification are not interchangeable terms. These definitions are memorable and strike at the heart of the difference between validation and verification.
They are also a little too concise and clever for their own good—because, you know, what does that actually mean in practical terms? Verification is the act of determining how well something matches agreed-upon specifications. Verification confirms that software sufficiently meets its predefined software requirements, specs, and designs. Non-conformities bugs are found and captured. Verification could be performed by actual users, but rarely is, as it is usually inefficient to do so.
So, verification is performed by technical professionals using all sorts of methods, from automated testing to manual test scripts to ad-hoc testing. Validation is the act of determining we how well something serves its intended purpose. When it comes to usability testing, the focus is on how well the user deals with the interface against reasonable expectations.